Understanding Creating Shared Value (CSV)

Creating Shared Value (CSV) is a business strategy that focuses on creating economic value in ways that also create value for society. This concept, introduced by Michael Porter and Mark Kramer in the Harvard Business Review, aims to redefine the role of businesses in society by addressing social issues while driving profitability​​.

The Core Principles of CSV

The essence of creating shared value lies in identifying and expanding the connections between societal and economic progress. Unlike traditional corporate social responsibility (CSR), which often involves redistributing value through philanthropy, CSV integrates social improvement directly into a company’s competitive strategy. According to Porter and Kramer, CSV is about expanding the total pool of economic and social value, thereby benefiting both the company and the community.

Key Areas of CSV Implementation:

  1. Reconceiving Products and Markets: Companies innovate to address unmet societal needs, such as health, housing, and environmental sustainability. This approach not only opens new markets but also enhances the company’s reputation and customer loyalty. For example, GE’s Ecomagination initiative focuses on developing products that improve environmental performance, driving substantial growth and profitability.
  2. Redefining Productivity in the Value Chain: Businesses improve efficiency and reduce costs by addressing social and environmental challenges. Nestlé, for instance, works with small-scale farmers to improve agricultural practices, resulting in better crop yields and quality, which in turn ensures a steady supply of high-quality raw materials for the company​​ .
  3. Enabling Local Cluster Development: Companies invest in the development of local communities to create a more robust and efficient supply chain. This includes enhancing local infrastructure, education, and business environments, which helps in creating a more sustainable and profitable business ecosystem.

Contesting Creating Shared Value (CSV)

While the concept of creating shared value has been widely praised, it has also faced significant criticism from scholars and practitioners. Andrew Crane, Guido Palazzo, Laura J. Spence, and Dirk Matten, in their article “Contesting the Value of Creating Shared Value,” highlight several shortcomings of the CSV framework​​ .

Major Criticisms of CSV

  1. Lack of Originality: Critics argue that the principles underlying CSV are not new but rather a repackaging of existing concepts in corporate social responsibility and business ethics. This perceived lack of novelty raises questions about the framework’s true innovation and impact​​ .
  2. Ignoring Tensions Between Social and Economic Goals: CSV is often criticized for oversimplifying the relationship between social and economic objectives. Critics point out that real-world business decisions frequently involve trade-offs between profit and social good, which CSV does not adequately address​​ .
  3. Naivety About Business Compliance: The assumption that businesses will comply with laws and ethical standards without stringent external enforcement is seen as unrealistic. Critics argue that without robust regulatory frameworks, companies may prioritize profit over social value, undermining the CSV concept​​ .
  4. Shallow Conception of Corporate Role in Society: Some scholars believe that CSV offers a limited view of the corporation’s role, focusing primarily on economic gains rather than genuinely transformative social impact. They argue for a more systemic approach that involves broader societal and environmental changes beyond the immediate interests of the business​​ .

Alternative Approaches

Despite these criticisms, the CSV framework has spurred valuable discussions and practices in the realm of responsible business. However, more comprehensive models that address systemic issues and promote deeper integration of social and environmental goals with business strategies may offer more sustainable solutions. For instance, models emphasizing sustainable value creation, such as those proposed by Stuart Hart and C.K. Prahalad, highlight the importance of genuinely benefiting the communities served by businesses​​ .


Creating Shared Value represents an important step in evolving business practices towards more socially responsible and sustainable models. While it offers significant potential for aligning business success with societal progress, it is not without its limitations. By understanding both the strengths and criticisms of CSV, businesses can better navigate the complexities of integrating social value into their core operations, ultimately driving more meaningful and lasting impact​​.

By diving into the concept and criticisms of creating shared value, businesses can gain a comprehensive understanding of how to effectively integrate societal goals into their strategies, ensuring sustainable growth and positive social impact.

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